Friday, April 23, 2010

History of Hyderabad City

History of Hyderabad is rich and also associated with interesting facts regarding rise and fall of various dynasties. In 1463, Sultan Quli Qutb-ul-Mulk was sent to Telangana region by Sultan Mohammad Shah Bahmani to quell disturbance, later on he expanded and strengthened the region by setting up a base at Golconda’s Kakatiya hill fortress.

Quli was made the Subedar of Telangana and ruled the region of Golconda for many years and at the same time he enjoyed the independence of Bahmani sultanate from Bidar. Soon he established the Golconda sultanate and declared the independence from the Bahmani Sultanate in the year 1512, which led to the start of Qutb Shahi dynasty in this region.

Rise of New City Hyderabad

In the year 1591, the great ruler of Qutb Shahi dynasty, Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah founded Hyderabad city on the banks of Musi River. The reason behind setting up the city on the banks of Musi River was to handle water shortage and later on, he built a massive stone bridge over the river to reduce the travel distance between Golconda and Hyderabad. It was believed that the people of Golconda were badly hit by plague epidemic and survived, after which they named their residents as "Hyder/Haider" a Farsi word. There is another interesting story associated for naming the city as “Hyderabad”, Sultan of Golconda, Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah fell in love with a humble courtesan named “bhagamati”, the king married bhagmati after she was converted to Muslim and gave a new name as “Haider Mahal” and hence city was named as Hyderabad in her honor. Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah of Hyderabad expressed his gratitude to almighty for stopping the epidemic from creating panic in the city by constructed our great monument “Charminar” in the year 1591.

Rise of Asaf Jahis Dynasty
As a part of his dynasty expansion in the south, the great Mughul Emperor Aurangzeb attacked Abul Hasan Tana Shah, who was the last king of Qutb Shahi and captured Hyderabad city in the year 1687. Apart from five Mughal provinces which include Aurangabad, Adilabad, Bidar, Bijapur, Berar, the city of Hyderabad was included as the sixth province of the Deccan region and was made the head quarters for Mughals. During the reign of Aurangzeb, the Hyderabad city lost its glory and Aurangabad was made the capital city of the Mughals. Mecca Masjid was the only contribution done by the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb to the city and the mosque was built in the year 1693. After the death of Aurangzeb in the year 1707, between the fall of Qutb Shahi dynasty and rise of Asaf Jahis dynasty, the Hyderabad city started gaining its lost glory and soon it was made the capital city in the year 1763 under the reign of Nizam Ali Khan and ruled the city for many years.

With help of Nizam Ali Khan, Britishers chose Hussain sagar to set up their troops and became involved in construction of Secunderbad city. After declaration of Indian Independence bill in the year 1947, formation of new state of Pakistan took place and then British allowed princely states to decide their own future whether to be part of Indian Union or to remain as Independent state. After India got independence on 15th August 1947 from Britishers, Hyderabad still was an independent state under the control of Nizam’s and was not part of Indian Union. The strategic followed by the Nizam’s of having Hyderabad as an independent state was not accepted by Indian Union, later on Nizam signed a 'standstill agreement' with them to be part of it, but difference grew up between the two.

Indian Union used its military force and carried operation named “Operation Polo” inorder to take control of Hyderabad state from reign of Nizam’s, on 18th of September 1948, the force succeeded in merging the city with Indian Union after imposing military rule.

Finally, all states of India were reorganized on 1 November, 1956 and the three states Andhra Pradesh, Mumbai and Karnataka were separated from the territories of Hyderabad state. As Telugu speaking community were more found in Hyderabad and in its surrounding areas, so based on linguistic majority, these areas were added to new formed Andhra Pradesh. Thus, Hyderabad became the capital city of the state of Andhra Pradesh.

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